Hawkmoths of  Brazil  by Alan Martin

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Xylophanes anubus (Cramer, 1777)                                                                            Common name: none


Original description: Sphinx anubus Cramer, 1777. Uitlandsche Kapellen (Papillons exot.). 2: 46, pl. 128, fig. C.


Synonymous species: Choerocampa alcides (Boisduval, [1875]); Choerocampa laevis (Grote & Robinson, 1867); Choerocampa nitidula (Clemens, 1859); Xylophanes alegrensis, 1915; Xylophanes anubus paraguayensis Gehlen, 1933


Type specimen locality: Surinam


Distribution: occurs widely across the Neotropical region from Mexico to Argentina and has been recorded from all 5 regions of Brazil.


Xylophanes indistincta Closs, 1915                                                                              Common name: none


Original description: Xylophanes indistincta Closs, 1915. Int. Ent. Zeitschrift 9:1.


Synonymous species: Xylophanes crotonis zikani Clark, 1922


Type specimen locality: Santa Catarina, Brazil


Distribution: and endemic to Brazil and only found in the South and South-east regions. It appears to favour higher altitudes  (pers. comm.).


Xylophanes tersa tersa (Linnaeus, 1771)                                                               Common name: Tersa Sphinx


Original description: Sphinx tersa Linnaeus, 1771. Mantissa Plantarum Altera 538.


Synonymous species: Xylophanes tersa cubensis Gehlen, 1941; Xylophanes tristis Closs, 1918


Type specimen locality: Maryland, Jamaica, Antigua  


Distribution: the nominate race X. t. tersa is the most widely distributed of the Xylophanes genus, occurring from Argentina to southern Canada. The most northerly breeding record is from New Jersey, but it is an established resident in the Carolinas southward, and along the Gulf Coast to Texas (Tuttle, 2007). It is replaced by the much darker newly described subspecies X. t. chaconi De Marmels, Clavjo, & Chacin, 1996 in Venezuela. It is a very common Sphingid in Brazil and has been recorded from all 5 regions.


Xylophanes titana (Druce, 1878)                                                              Common name: none


Original description: Choerocampa titana Druce, 1878. Entomologist’s Mon. Mag. 14: 249.


Synonymous species: none


Type specimen locality: Panama, Chirqui


Distribution: occurs widely across the Neotropical region from Mexico to Argentina and has been recorded in all 5 regions of Brazil.


Xylophanes ferotinus Gehlen, 1930                                                                            Common name: none


Original description: Xylophanes ferotinus Gehlen, 1930. Neue Sphingiden 58-259.


Synonymous species: none


Type specimen locality: south-east Brazil


Distribution: an endemic to Brazil. Only one specimen (the male holotype) exists in the Carnegie museum of a specimen collected in south-east Brazil. It is very similar to X.tersa of which it may simply be an aberrant form, however Jean Haxaire examined the specimen recently and  believes it may well be a separate species.


Xylophanes aglaor (Boisduval, [1875])                                                   Common name: none


Original description: Choerocampa aglaor Boisduval, [1875]. Hist. Nat. Insectes (Spec. Gen. Lepid. Heteroceres) 1: 275.


Synonymous species: none


Type specimen locality: [Brazil]


Distribution: this species has only been recorded in South and South-east Brazil and possibly Bolivia. It appears to favour higher altitudes (pers.comm.).


Xylophanes loelia (Druce, 1878)                                                               Common name: none


Original description: Choerocampa loelia Druce, 1878. Entomologist’s Mon. Mag. 14: 249.


Synonymous species: Xylophanes heinrichi Closs, 1917


Type specimen locality: Panama, Chiriqui


Distribution: found from Central America to northern Argentina. In Brazil it has been recorded from the North, North-east and South-east regions.


Xylophanes lolita Vaglia & Haxaire, 2008                                                Common name: none


Original description: Xylophanes lolita Vaglia & Haxaire, 2008. Zootaxa 1923: 18-36.


Synonymous species: none


Type specimen locality: Minas Gerais, Brazil


Distribution: a Brazilian endemic with so far only 2 specimens recorded from Minas Gerais in South-east Brazil.


Xylophanes libya (Druce, 1878)                                                                 Common name: none


Original description: Choerocampa libya Druce, 1878. Ent. mon. Mag. 14: 249.


Synonymous species: Xylophanus pallescens Closs, 1917


Type specimen locality: Chiriqui, Panama


Distribution: found from Mexico to Peru and from North-east Brazil, however it is possible that the Brazilian records refer to the more recently described Xylophanes pearsoni.


Xylophanes pearsoni Soares & Motta 2006                                           Common name: none

Common name: none


Original description: Xylophanes pearsoni  Soares & Motta, 2006. Entomol. Vect 9: 93-103


Synonymous species: none


Type specimen locality: Brazil, Bahia


Distribution: an endemic to Brazil and reported only from North-east Brazil, but see X.libya above.


Xylophanes fosteri Rothschild & Jordan, 1906                                                  Common name: none


Original description: Xylophanes fosteri Rothschild & Jordan, 1906. Proc. New England Zoo. Club 6: 57-72


Synonymous species: Xylophanes isaon nanus Raymondo da Silva, 1934.


Type specimen locality: Paraguay, Sapucay


Distribution: known only from South and South-east Brazil, Paraguay and northern Argentina.


Xylophanes isaon (Boisduval, [1875])                                                      Common name: none  


Original description: Choerocampa isaon Boisduval, [1875]. Hist. Nat. Insectes (Spec. Gen. Lepid. Heteroceres). 1: 272.


Synonymous species: Theretra olivacea (Rothschild, 1894)


Type specimen locality: Brazil


Distribution: Xylophanes isaon has only been recorded from South and South-east Brazil, Paraguay and northern Argentina (Misiones). It appears to favour higher altitudes (pers. comm.).


Xylophanes neoptolemus (Cramer, 1780)                                              Common name: none


Original description: Sphinx neoptolemus Cramer, 1780. Neotype: Vaglia et al 2008. Zootaxa 1923: 30.


Synonymous species: Chaerocampa brasiliensis (Schaufuss, 1870); Chaerocampa trileneata (Walker, [1865]); Xylophanes neoptolemus trinitatis Closs, 1917.


Type specimen locality: neotype from Rancho Grande, Venezuela


Distribution: primarily found in Central America but there is a single record from the North of Brazil collected by Hawes, 2005 as part of a UEA MSc thesis and deposited in the IMPA, Manaus collection.


Xylophanes hydrata Rothschild & Jordan, 1903                                   Common name: none


Original description: Xylophanes hydrata Rothschild & Jordan, 1903. Novit. Zoologicae 9 (suppl.): 678 (key), 706.


Synonymous species: none


Type specimen locality: Brazil [Rio de Janeiro]  


Distribution: occurs in West-central, South and South-east Brazil but has also been reported from Peru and Bolivia.


Xylophanes elara (Druce, 1878)                                                                Common name: none


Original description: Darapsa elara Druce 1878. Entomologist's mon. Mag. 14 .


Synonymous species: Chaerocampa elicius (Moschler, 1882); Theretra perviridis (Rothschild, 1894)


Type specimen locality: Paraguay


Distribution: found across much of South America from Venezuela to Paraguay and there is one record from Missiones in Argentina in October 2015. In Brazil it has ben recorded from all regions except the North-east. It is possible that hydrata and elara are one species.


Xylophanes haxairei Cadiou, 1985                                                           Common name: none


Original description:  Xylophanes haxairei  Cadiou, 1985. Lambillionea 84: 52.


Synonymous species: none


Type specimen locality: French Guiana


Distribution: reported from Ecuador and Colombia plus a single record from Amapa in North Brazil.


Xylophanes undata Rothschild & Jordan, 1903                                   Common name: none


Original description: Xylophanes undata Rothschild & Jordan, 1903.  Novit. Zool. 9 (Suppl.): 668.


Synonymous species: Gonenyo irrorata (Rothschild, 1895)


Type specimen locality: Chuchuras, Peru


Distribution: reported from Equador, Colombia, Peru and Northern Brazil.


Xylophanes tyndarus (Boisduval, [1875])                                               Common name: none


Original description: Choerocampa tyndarus Boisduval, [1875]. Hist. Nat. Insectes (Spec. Gen. Lepid. Heteroceres). 1: 264.


Synonymous species: Xylophanes tyndarus splendens Haxaire, 2014.


Type specimen locality: Brasilia [Brazil]


Distribution: found across the Neotropical region from Mexico to Argentina. It has been reported from all 5 regions of Brazil.


Xylophanes marginalis Clark, 1917                                                          Common name: none


Original description: Xylophanes tyndarus marganalis Clark, 1917. Proc. New Engl. Zool. Club 6: 69.


Synonymous species: Xylophanes reussi Closs, 1920


Type specimen locality: Rio Grande do Sul [Brazil]  


Distribution: Xylophanes marginalis is thought to have a restricted range in South-east Brazil, Uruguay and northern Argentina, however there also appear to be three specimens in the Rio Museum from the Amazonian Region which need further examination. Xylophanes marginalis was originally described as a subspecies of Xylophanes tyndarus. It appears to favour higher altitudes (pers. comm.).


Xylophanes pistacina (Boisduval, [1875])                                              Common name: none


Original description: Choerocampa pistacina Boisduval, [1875]. Hist. Nat. Insectes (Spec. Gen. Lepid. Heteroceres). 1: 199.


Synonymous species: Calliomma diogenes (Maassen, 1880); Choerocampa jocasta (Druce, 1888)


Type specimen locality: Minas Gerais [Brazil]


Distribution: found across the Neotropical region from Mexico to Paraguay. It has been recorded from all 5 regions of Brazil.


Xylophanes crenulata (Vaglia & Haxaire, 2009)                                    Common name: none


Original description: Xylophanes crenulata Vaglia & Haxaire, 2009. The European Entomologist, Vol. 1,95-102. 95.


Synonymous species: none


Type specimen locality: Santa Catarina, Brazil


Distribution:  in 2009 Thierry Vaglia and Jean Haxaire published a paper describing a new species, Xylophanes crenulata to be separated from X. ceratomioides. The new species was described from specimens taken from Santa Catarina  (South) and Minas Gerais (South-east) Brazil, Paraguay and northern Argentina, but since publication specimens have been identified much more widely from French Guiana, Venezuela, eastern Ecuador, Bolivia and eastern Peru. The revised distribution of X. ceratomioides is now somewhat unclear, but it appears that it does not occur in Brazil.


Xylophanes guianensis (Rothschild, 1894)                                              Common name: none


Original description: Theretra guianensis  Rothschild, 1894. Novit. Zool. 1 (1): 77


Synonymous species: none


Type specimen locality: Christianburg, British Guiana


Distribution: found from Costa Rica to Bolivia and the North of Brazil.


Xylophanes xylobotes (Burmeister, 1878)                                              Common name: none


Original description: Choerocampa xylobotes Burmeister, 1878. Descr. Physique Republique Argentine 5 (Lepid.) (1): 355.


Synonymous species: none


Type specimen locality: Arica [Chile]


Distribution: Xylophanes xylobotes has a very restricted range in South and South-east Brazil and Paraguay. It appears to favour higher altitudes (pers. comm.).


Xylophanes thyelia thyelia (Linnaeus, 1758)                                         Common name: none


Original description: Sphinx thyelia Linnaeus, 1758. Syst. Naturae (Edn 10). 1: 492.


Synonymous species: none


Type specimen locality: South America


Distribution:  the nominate race Xylophanes thyelia thyelia occurs across most of South America including all 5 regions of Brazil, but is replaced by the subspecies Xylophanes thyelia salvini (Druce, 1878) in Guatemala and Central America.


Xylophanes epaphus Boisduval, [1875])                                                  Common name: none


Original description: Choerocampa epaphus Boisduval, [1875]. Hist. Nat. Insectes (Spec. Gen. Lepid. Heteroceres). 1: 267.


Synonymous species: Theretra boettgeri (Rothschild, 1895)


Type specimen locality: Cayenne [French Guiana]


Distribution: reported from French Guiana and North-east and South-east Brazil.


Xylophanes obscurus Rothschild & Jordan, 1910                                 Common name: none


Original description: Xylophanes cosmius obscurus Rothschild & Jordan, 1910. Novit. Zoologicae 17: 455.


Synonymous species: Xylophanes pizarro Gehlen, 1928


Type specimen locality: Allianca


Distribution: reported only from the North of Brazil and Peru.


Xylophanes cosmius  Rothschild & Jordan, 1906                                   Common name: none


Original description: Xylophanes cosmius  Rothschild & Jordan, 1906. Novit. Zool. Vol X111 p.183 n12.


Synonymous species: Xylophanes agilis Closs, 1916


Type specimen locality: Carabaya, Peru


Distribution: essentially an Andean species from Peru, Bolivia and Northern Brazil, but there is one strange but confirmed record from Rio de Janeiro.


Xylophanes amadis (Stoll, 1782)                                                               Common name: none


Original description: Sphinx amadis Stoll, 1782. Uitlandsche Kapellen (Papillons exot.). 4: 216, pl. 394, fig. C.


Synonymous species: Chaerocampa thalassina (Clemens, 1859); Xylophanes amadis goeldi Rothschild & Jordan, 1903; Xylophanes stuarti (Rothschild, 1894)


Type specimen locality: Surinam


Distribution: found in the northern part of South America including the North and North-east Brazil.


Xylophanes furtadoi Haxaire, 2009                                                           Common name: none


Original description: Xylophanes furtadoi, Haxaire, 2009. The European Entomologist, Vol II (1-2): 7-17.


Synonymous species: none


Type specimen locality: Rondonia, Brazil


Distribution: an endemic to Brazil and only found in Rondonia, Northern Brazil in an area that is facing a high level of deforestation.


Xylophanes depuiseti (Boisduval, [1875])                                              Common name: none


Original description: Eucheryx depuiseti Boisduval, [1875]. Hist. Nat. Insectes (Spec. Gen. Lepid. Heteroceres). 1: 222.


Synonymous species: none


Type specimen locality: Brazil


Distribution: found only in South and South-east Brazil, and Paraguay.


Xylophanes porcus continentalis  (Rothschild & Jordan, 1903)        Common name: Porcus Sphinx


Original description: Xylophanes porcus continentalis Rothschild & Jordan, 1903. Novit. Zoologicae 9 (suppl.): 686.


Synonymous species: none


Type specimen locality: Colombia


Distribution: X.p.continentalis is found across Central and South America and is replaced in Cuba by the nominate race X. p. porcus (Hubner, [1823]). It is a very common species in Brazil and has been reported from all 5 regions.


Xylophanes schausi (Rothschild, 1894)                                                    Common name: none


Original description: Darapsa schausi Rothschild & Jordan, 1894. Novit. Zoologicae 1 (1): 84.


Synonymous species: Theretra arpi (Schaus, 1898)


Type specimen locality: Petropolis, Rio de Janeiro [Brazil]  


Distribution: reported from Venezuela, Ecuador and North, South and South-east Brazil. The nominate race Xylophanes schausi schausi is found in the south but the subspecies Xylophanes schausi serenus Rothschild & Jordan, 1910 is known from northern areas. Although the two subspecies are very similar, DNA barcodes suggest a slight difference of about 1.55%, which is probably sufficient to indicate subspecies differentiation (Ian Kitching, pers. comm.).


Xylophanes rufescens (Rothschild, 1894)                                                Common name: none


Original description: Theretra rufescens Rothschild, 1894. Novit. Zool. 1 (1): 75, pl.6, f.11.


Synonymous species: none


Type specimen locality: British Guiana


Distribution: reported from Venezuela, the Guianas and North Brazil.


Xylophanes chiron nechus (Cramer, 1777)                                             Common name: none


Original description: Sphinx nechus Cramer, 1777. Uitlandsche Kapellen (Papillons exot.) 2: 125, pl.178, fig.B.


Synonymous species: Choerocampa haitensis (Butler, 1875)


Type specimen locality: West Indies, [Surinam]


Distribution: the nominate race Xylophanes chiron chiron (Drury, 1773) is found in Jamaica, but the subspecies Xylophanes chiron nechus is found across most of Central and South America. There are two other subspecies, Xylophanes chiron cubanus Rothschild & Jordan, 1906 found in Cuba and Xylophanes chiron lucianus Rothschild & Jordan, 1906 found in St. Lucia and Martinique and nearby islands. In Brazil it is one of the most common species  and has been reported from all 5 regions.


Xylophanes fusimacula (R.Felder,[1874])                                               Common name: none


Original description: Pergesa fusimacula R.Felder, [1874]. Reise ost Fregatte Novara (Zool.) 2 (Abt. 2) pl.176 fig. 4.


Synonymous species: Xylophanes fusimacula niepelti Gehlen, 1928


Type specimen locality: Brasilia


Distribution: found in Colombia, Peru, Ecuador, Venezuela, French Guiana and a single record from Amapa in Northern Brazil.


Xylophanes pluto Fabricius, 1777)                                                            Common name: Pluto Sphinx


Original description: Sphinx pluto Fabricius, 1777. Genera Insectorum 274.


Synonymous species: Calliomma ochracea (Walker, 1856); Oreus thorates (Hubner, [1827]-[1831]); Sphinx croesus (Dalman, 1823)


Type specimen locality: Meridian America [Central America]  


Distribution: Xylophanes pluto has a wide breeding distribution from northern Argentina to Mexico, the West Indies and into southern Texas and Florida. It has been recorded from all 5 regions of Brazil.


Phanoxyla hystrix (R.Felder, [1874])                                                        Common name: none


Original description: Chaerocampa hystrix R.Felder, [1874]. Reise Fregatte Novara, Bd2 (Abth. 2) (4): pl. 76, f. 5.


Synonymous species: none


Type specimen locality: Amazons


Distribution: found in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Northern Brazil.


Hyles euphorbiarum (Guerin-Meneville & Percheron, 1835)            Common name: none


Original description: Sphinx euphorbiarum Guerin-Meneville & Percheron, 1835. Genera des Insectes 2 (8): pl. 3, fig. 1.


Synonymous species: Deilephila celeno (Boisduval, [1875]), Deilephila spinifascia (Butler, 1881)


Type specimen locality: South America


Distribution: widely distributed across South America  and recorded from all 5 regions of Brazil with the exception of the North.


Macroglossini

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