Hawkmoths of  Brazil  by Alan Martin

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Eumorpha

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Eumorpha anchemolus (Cramer, 1779)                                                  Common name: Anchemolus Sphinx


Original description: Sphinx anchemolus Cramer, 1779. Uitlandsche Kapellen (Papillons. exot.) 3: 50, pl.224, fig.C.


Synonymous species: Philampelus satellitia major (Burmeister, 1878)


Type specimen locality: Surinam


Distribution: Eumorpha anchemolus occurs throughout the Neotropical region from southern Mexico to northern  Argentina, and there is a single record of a specimen taken in Texas (Tuttle, 2007). In Brazil it has been reported from the North, North-east, South and South-east regions.


Eumorpha obliquus  (Rothschild & Jordan, 1903)                                Common name: none


Original description: Pholus obliquus Rothschild & Jordan, 1903. Novit. Zoologicae 9: 1-972.


Synonymous species: none


Type specimen locality: Colombia


Distribution: occurs from Central America down to Bolivia, and in northern Brazil.


Eumorpha orientis (Daniel, 1949)                                                              Common name: none


Original description: Pholus obliquus orientis Daniel, 1949. Mitt. Munch. Ent. Ges. 35-39: 234.


Synonymous species: Eumorpha obliquus orientis (Daniel, 1949)


Type specimen locality: Brazil  


Distribution: until recently Eumorpha orientis was treated as a subspecies of Eumorpha obliquus. E.orientis is an endemic to Brazil and only occurs in the South and South eastern regions. It appears to favour higher altitudes (pers. comm.).


Eumorpha analis (Rothschild & Jordan, 1903)                                       Common name: none


Original description: Pholus analis Rothschild & Jordan, 1903. Novit. Zoologicae 9 (suppl.): 482.


Synonymous species: none


Type specimen locality: Paraguay  


Distribution: Eumorpha analis is found in northern Argentina, Bolivia and Paraguay. In Brazil it has been reported from the West-central, South and South-east regions.


Eumorpha satellitia excessus Gehlen, 1926                                           Common name: none


Original description: Pholus satellitia excessus Gehlen, 1926. Int. Ent. Zeitschrift 20: 172-176.


Synonymous species: Pholus satellitia rosea


Type specimen locality: Cuyaba, Brazil


Distribution: E.satellitia is found from the southern states of the USA through Central America and down to Peru and Brazil. The nominate race occurs in Jamaica and apparently southern Texas but there are 3 subspecies: E.s.excessus (Gehlen, 1926) found only in the West-central region of Brazil (Mato Gross and Matto Grosso do Sul), E.s.licaon (Cramer, 1775) found in Central America, Ecuador  and Peru and E.s.posticatus (Grote, 1865) found in Florida, the Bahamas and Cuba.


Eumorpha megaeacus (Hubner, [1819])                                                  Common name: Eacus Sphinx


Original description: Daphnis megaeacus Hubner, [1819]. Verz. bekannter Schmett. 134.


Synonymous species: Sphinx eacus (Cramer, 1780)


Type specimen locality: Surinam


Distribution: Eumorpha megaeacus occurs widely across the Neotropical region from Mexico to Brazil, and there is just one record from the USA, in Texas (Hodges, 1971). In Brazil it has been recorded from all regions except West-central.


Eumorpha adamsi  (Rothschild & Jordan, 1903)                                    Common name: none


Original description: Pholus adamsi Rothschild & Jordan, 1903. Novit. zool.. 9 (suppl.): 477 (key), 488


Synonymous species: none


Type specimen locality: Venezuela


Distribution:  E.adamsi has been recorded from Venezuela but appears to have a restricted range in North-east, West-central and South-east Brazil.


Eumorpha translineatus (Rothschild, 1895)                                           Common name: none


Original description: Philampelus translineatus Rothschild, 1895. Deut. Ent. Zeit., Iris. 7: 299.


Synonymous species: Eumorpha translineatus extinctus (Gehlen, 1926)


Type specimen locality: Santa Catarina [Brazil]  


Distribution: Eumorpha translineatus has a restricted range and has only been recorded from South and South-east Brazil, Bolivia and Argentina. It appears to favour higher altitudes (pers. Comm).


Eumorpha labruscae labruscae (Linnaeus, 1758)                                 Common name: Gaudy Sphinx  


Original description: Sphinx labruscae Linnaeus, 1758. Syst. Naturae (Edn 10). 1: 491.


Synonymous species: Sphinx clotho (Fabricius, 1775)


Type specimen locality: Neotropical Region


Distribution: another widespread species occurring from Mexico to Argentina, the Caribbean Islands and also in the Neartic region. In the USA there is a breeding population in southern and occasionally northern Florida, and surprisingly larvae have even been found in Saskatchewan. Adults have also been recorded from a number of States from Texas to Michigan (Tuttle, 2007). It has been found in all 5 regions of Brazil. There is one other subspecies Eumorpha labruscae yupanquii (Kernbach, 1962) found in the Galapagos Islands.


Eumorpha phorbas (Cramer, 1775)                                                           Common name: none


Original description: Sphinx phorbas Cramer, 1775. Uitlandsche Kapellen (Papillons exot.). 1: 86, pl.55, fig.B.


Synonymous species: Sphinx pandion (Stoll, 1780)


Type specimen locality: Neotropical Region, [Venezuela]  


Distribution: E. phorbas occurs across the through Central America, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana and the Northern region of Brazil. Rather strangely it also occurs in South-east Brazil.


Eumorpha caprionnieri Boisduval, [1875])                                            Common name: none


Original description: Philampelus capronnieri Boisduval, 1875. Hist. nat. Ins., Spec. Gen. Lepid. Heteroceres, 1: 194, pl.7, f.2.


Synonymous species: none


Type specimen locality: Oyapock


Distribution: occurs across the northern half of South America, including the Northern region of Brazil.


Eumorpha fasciatus fasciatus (Sulzer, 1776)                                         Common name: Banded Sphinx or Lesser Vine Sphinx


Original description: Sphinx fasciatus Sulzer, 1776. Abgekurtze Gesch. Insecten 1: 151.


Synonymous species: Eumorpha jussieuae Hubner, [1816]; Sphinx strigilis (Vogel, 1822)


Type specimen locality: Neotropical Region


Distribution: Eumorpha fasciatus fasciatus occurs across the Neotropical region from Mexico to Argentina, and the Caribbean Islands. E. f. fasciatus also breeds in the USA in the coastal areas from the Carolinas through Florida and west along the Gulf of Mexico to eastern Texas, and northwards to Missouri (Tuttle, 2007). Adults migrate long distances during the late summer and have been found as far north as Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Ontario. There is one other subspecies E. fasciatus tupaci (Kernbach, 1962) which is only found in the Galapagos Islands. It has been recorded from all 5 regions of Brazil.


Eumorpha vitis vitis (Linnaeus, 1758)                                                       Common name: Vine Sphinx


Original description: Sphinx vitis Linnaeus, 1758. Syst. Naturae (Edn 10). 1: 491.


Synonymous species: Philampelus hornbeckiana (Harris, 1839); Philampelus linnei (Grote & Robinson, 1865)


Type specimen locality: Neotropical Region


Distribution: Eumorpha vitis vitis can be found across the Neotropical region from Mexico to Argentina, but it also breeds in southern Florida and much of Texas with occasional strays reaching Mississippi, Louisiana, Arizona and even  Massachusetts. There are two other subspecies found in the Caribbean Islands: Eumorpha vitis fuscatus (Rothschild & Jordan, 1906) from St. Lucia, Guadalupe and Martinique and Eumorpha vitis hesperidum (Kirby, 1880) from Jamaica. It has been recorded from all 5 regions of Brazil.