Hawkmoths of Brazil by Alan Martin
IDENTIFICATION KEY: ERINNYIS and PHRYXUS
1. Erinnyis with striped abdomens
E. alope alope female: bright yellow hindwings with a broad dark marginal band.
Wing (male and female): 33-
E. alope alope male: similar to female but with paler inner margins to the forewing.
E. ello ello female: orange hindwings with a narrow dark marginal band. Forewings pale grey, but the markings are quite variable.
Wing (male and female): 30-
E. ello ello male: hindwings as per female but the forewing is darker with a clear black central stripe along its length.
E. lassauxii female: forewing similar to smaller E.crameri but hindwing dark brown. Black spots on the underside of the abdomen.
Wing (male and female): 38-
E. lassauxii male: similar to female.
E. impunctata: forewing similar to E.crameri but note the smooth edge to the hindwing marginal band. Could also be confused with E.lassauxi but it has no black spots on the underside of the abdomen.
2. Erinnyis without striped abdomens
E. crameri female: hindwings bright orange with a narrow jagged dark marginal band
Wing (male and female): 32-
E. crameri male: similar to female but paler inner margins to the forewing which extend to the thorax, and a pale subapical area.
E. obscura obscura female: by far the smallest Erinnyis species. Pale grey forewings and bright orange hindwings with a partial marginal band.
Wing (male and female): 24-
E. obscura obscura male: similar to female but with a dark forewing streak.
E. oenotrus female: larger than E.obscura and with a series of darker markings along the costa and a dark diagonal mark across the forewing.
Wing (male and female): 31-
E. oenotrus male: much darker than the female. The forewing is rather similar to E.crameri but the pale inner margin does not extend as far as the thorax.
P.caicus : distinctive pale forewing dash and hindwing markings.