Hawkmoths of  Brazil  by Alan Martin

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Small Nocturnal Dilophonotini

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Enyo cavifer (Rothschild & Jordan, 1903)                                                Common name: none


Original description: Epistor cavifer Rothschild & Jordan, 1903. Novit. Zool. 9 (suppl.): 403 (key), 407.


Synonymous species: Enyo cavifer paganus (Kernbach, 1957); Thyreus maris (Herrich-Schaffer, 1854)


Type specimen locality: Colombia


Distribution: widespread in South America and has been recorded from Brazil northwards to Central America. In Brazil it has been recorded from the North, South and South-east regions.


Enyo gorgon (Cramer, 1777)                                                                       Common name: none


Original description: Sphinx gorgon Cramer, 1777. Uitlandsche Kapellen (Papillons exot.). 2:73, pl. 142, fig. E.


Synonymous species: Epistor gorgon heinrichi (Clark, 1932); Sphinx lyctus (Cramer, 1779)


Type specimen locality: Surinam


Distribution: found across most of South and Central America and relatively common in Brazil, where it has been recorded from all 5 regions.  


Enyo taedium australis (Rothschild & Jordan, 1903)                           Common name: none


Original description: Epistor taedium australis Rothschild & Jordan, 1903. Novit. zool.. 9 (suppl.): 407.


Synonymous species: none


Type specimen locality: Brazil, Petropolis


Distribution:  the nominate race of E. taedium occurs in Central America, Venezuela & Colombia. A single male specimen of E. t. australis was collected in Petropolis (South-east Brazil) and is in the London NHM collection.  It may be  that this subspecies will ultimately be split from taedium.


Enyo lugubris lugubris (Linnaeus, 1771)                                                 Common name: Mournful Sphinx


Original description: Sphinx lugubris Linnaeus, 1771. Mantissa Plantarum Altera 537.


Synonymous species: Sphinx fegeus (Cramer, 1779); Epistor luctuosus (Boisduval, [1875])


Type specimen locality: Antigua


Distribution: E. l. lugubris is widespread across Central and South America but is replaced by the subspecies E. l. delanoi (Kernbach, 1962) in the Galapagos Islands. In the USA it breeds from South Carolina through the southern portion of the gulf coast to the lower Rio Grande valley of Texas, but individuals have strayed as far north as Michigan and south-east Arizona (Tuttle, 2007). It has been recorded in all 5 regions of Brazil.


Enyo ocypete (Linnaeus, 1758)                                                                   Common name: none


Original description: Sphinx ocypete Linnaeus, 1758. Systema Naturae (Edn. 10). 1: 489.


Synonymous species: Sphinx camertus (Cramer, 1779); Sphinx danum (Cramer, 1779)


Type specimen locality: Neotropical Region


Distribution: a widespread species found across most of the Neotropical region with a few stray records from as far north as southern Florida. It has been recorded in all 5 regions of Brazil.


Aleuron chloroptera (Perty, [1833])                                                         Common name: none


Original description: Sphinx chloroptera Perty, [1833]. Delectus Animalium Articulatorum Bras. 155.


Synonymous species: Aleuron chloroptera Boisduval, 1870; Aleuron disis Boisduval, [1875]


Type specimen locality: south west, Brazil


Distribution: Aleuron chloroptera can be found throughout the Neotropical region south to Argentina. It has been recorded from all 5 Brazilian regions.


Aleuron prominens (Walker, 1856)                                                           Common name: none


Original description: Enyo prominens Walker, 1856. List Specimens Lepid. Insects Colln Br. Mus.. 8: 115


Synonymous species: Aleuron pudens Boisduval, [1875]; Tylognathus smerinthoides (R.Felder, [1874])


Type specimen locality: Brazil


Distribution: it is an endemic of Brazil and has only been recorded from the South-east and Southern regions.


Aleuron carinata (Walker, 1856)                                                               Common name: none


Original description: Enyo carinata Walker, 1856. List Spec. Lepid. Insects Colln. Br. Mus. 8: 117


Synonymous species: Aleuron orophilos Boisduval, [1875]; Aleuron philampeloides (R.Felder, [1874])


Type specimen locality: Para


Distribution: found in Central America, Colombia, Peru and in the North and West-central regions of Brazil.


Aleuron iphis (Walker, 1856)                                                                      Common name: none


Original description: Enyo iphis Walker, 1856. List Specimens Lepid. Insects Colln. Br. Mus. 8: 116.


Synonymous species: Calliomma volatica (Clemens, 1859); Tylognathus scriptor (R. Felder, [1874])


Type specimen locality: Brazil


Distribution: this species can be found widely across the Neotropical region and in all 5 regions of Brazil.


Aleuron neglectum Rothschild & Jordan, 1903                                      Common name: none  


Original description: Aleuron neglectum Rothschild & Jordan, 1903. Novit. Zoologicae 9 (suppl.): 395 (key), 398.


Synonymous species: Rhodosoma flavidus (Zhu & Wang, 1997); Aleuron leo Clark, 1935; Aleuron neglectum paraguayana Clark, 1931


Type specimen locality: Iquitos [Peru]


Distribution: this species can be found widely across the Neotropical region and in all regions of Brazil with the exception of the North-east.


Aleuron ypanemae (Boisduval, [1875])                                                      Common name: none  


Original description: Tylognathus ypanemae Boisduval, [1875]. Hist. nat. Insectes (Spec. gén. Lépid. Hétérocères). 1: 295.


Synonymous species: none


Type specimen locality:  Brazil, Ypanema


Distribution:  it is an endemic of Brazil and has only been recorded from the South-east region.


Perigonia lusca lusca (Fabricius, 1777)                                                    Common name: Coffee Sphinx  


Original description: Sphinx lusca Fabricius, 1777. Genera Insectorum 272.


Synonymous species: Macroglossa doto (Schaufuss, 1870); Macroglossa doto affinis (Schaufuss, 1870); Perigonia restituta Walker, [1865]; Perigonia lusca bahamensis Clark, 1919; Perigonia interrupta Walker, [1865]; Perigonia lusca major Clark, 1928; Stenolophia tenebrosa (R. Felder, [1874])


Type specimen locality: Meridian America


Distribution: the nominate species P. l. lusca can be found in the Neotropical region from Mexico to Brazil, and is also locally common in parts of Florida (Tuttle, 2007). It can be found in all 5 regions of Brazil. The only subspecies P. l. continua Vasquez-G., 1959 is found on Revillagigedo Island and Socorro Island, Mexico.


Perigonia passerina Boisduval, [1875]                                                      Common name: none


Original description: Perigonia passerina, Boisduval [1875]. Hist. nat. Insectes (Spec. gén. Lépid. Hétérocères). 1: 327


Synonymous species: none


Type specimen locality: unknown


Distribution: found widely across South America. It has only been recorded from the North and South-east of Brazil.


Perigonia ilus Boisduval, 1870                                                                    Common name: none


Original description: Perigonia ilus Boisduval, 1870. Considerations Lepid. Guatemala: 66


Synonymous species: none


Type specimen locality: Honduras and Mexico


Distribution: widely distributed through Central and South America. In Brazil it has been recorded from the North, South and South-east regions.


Perigonia pallida Rothschild & Jordan, 1903                                         Common name: none


Original description: Perigonia pallida Rothschild & Jordan, 1903. Novit. Zoologicae 9 (suppl): 424 (key), 425.


Synonymous species: Perigonia pallida rufescens Daniel, 1949


Type specimen locality: Venezuela


Distribution: Perigonia pallida occurs widely across South America from Venezuela to Argentina. It has been recorded from all 5 regions of Brazil.


Perigonia stulta Herrich-Schaffer, [1854]                                               Common name: none


Original description: Perigonia stulta Herrich-Schaffer, [1854]. Samml. neuer oder wenig bekannter aussereur. Schmett. 1 (1): wrapper, pl. 23, fig 106.


Synonymous species: none


Type specimen locality: Surinam


Distribution: found across the Neotropical region and as far north as Guatemala, and in all 5 regions of Brazil.


Perigonia pittieri Lichy, 1962                                                                      Common name: none


Original description: Perigonia pittieri Lichy, 1962. Revista de la Facultad de Agric., Univ. Centr. De Venezuela Vol2: 53-178.


Synonymous species: none


Type specimen locality: Venezuela


Distribution: occurs in Panama, Venezuela and in the North and North-east of Brazil.


Perigonia leucopus Rothschild & Jordan, 1910                                      Common name: none


Original description: Perigonia leucopus, Rothschild & Jordan, 1910. Nov. Zool. 17: 456-459.


Synonymous species: none


Type specimen locality: Matto Grosso


Distribution: an endemic to Brazil and only reported from the North-east and West-central regions.


Nyceryx alophus alophus (Boisduval, [1875])                                        Common name: none


Original description: Perigonia alophus Boisduval, [1875]. Hist. Nat. Insectes (Spec. Gen. Lepid. Heteroceres). 1: 323.


Synonymous species: Nyceryx alophus tristis Jorgensen, 1934


Type specimen locality: Bahia [Brazil]


Distribution: Nyceryx alophus alophus can be found across much of the South American region but is replaced by the subspecies Nyceryx alophus ixion Rothschild & Jordan, 1903 in the extreme south (Argentina). It appears to favour higher altitudes (pers. comm.). It has been recorded from the West-central, South and South-east regions of Brazil.


Nyceryx continua continua (Walker, 1856)                                            Common name: none


Original description: Lophura continua Walker, 1856. List Specimens Lepid. Insects Colln Br. Mus. 8: 108.


Synonymous species: Nyceryx lemonia Gehlen, 1941; Perigonia distans, (Boisduval, [1875])


Type specimen locality: Brazil, Espirito Santo


Distribution: the nominate race Nyceryx continua continua is found across the South and South-east of Brazil, Paraguay and northern Argentina. It is replaced in Bolivia and Peru by N. continua cratera Rothschild & Jordan, 1916. It appears to favour higher altitudes (pers. comm).


Nyceryx brevis Becker, 2001                                                                        Common name: none


Original description: Nyceryx brevis, 2001. Revta bras. Zool . 18 (1): 159-161.


Synonymous species: none


Type specimen locality: Brazil, Bahia


Distribution: recently discovered and very rare. It has only been found at higher elevations with scattered low savanna trees and bushes. An endemic of Brazil found in the North-east and South-east regions of Brazil.


Nyceryx magna (R. Felder, [1874])                                                            Common name: none


Original description: Perigonia magna R.Felder [1875]. Reise ost Fregatte Novara (Zool.) 2 (Abt. 2) pl.75 fig. 12.


Synonymous species: none


Type specimen locality:  Amazonas


Distribution: reported from the North of Brazil and Ecuador.


Nyceryx nictitans nictitans (Boisduval, [1875])                                    Common name: none


Original description: Perigonia nictitans Boisduval, [1875]. Hist. Nat. Insectes (Spec. Gen. Lepid. Heteroceres). 1: 322.


Synonymous species: Perigonia subaurea (Kohler, 1924)


Type specimen locality: Minas Gerais [Brazil]


Distribution: the nominate race Nyceryx nictitans nictitans is found in the South and South-east of Brazil but is replaced in the western areas (such as Peru) by N. nictitans saturata Rothschild & Jordan, 1903.


Nyceryx riscus (Schaus, 1890)                                                                     Common name: none


Original description: Enyo riscus Schaus, 1890. Entomologica Americana 6: 20.


Synonymous species: Pachygonia creusa Rothschild, 1894


Type specimen locality: Mexico


Distribution: Nyceryx riscus occurs widely across the Neotropical region from Mexico to Argentina. It has been recorded from all 5 regions of Brazil.


Nyceryx stuarti  (Rothschild, 1894)                                                           Common name: none


Original description:  Pachygonia stuarti Rothschild, 1894. Novit. Zool. 1 (4): 665.


Synonymous species: none


Type specimen locality: Rio Cachyaco, Iquitos


Distribution: reported from Venezuela and French Guiana to Bolivia. In Brazil it has only been reported from the North.


Nyceryx janzeni Haxaire, 2005                                                                    Common name: none


Original description: Nyceryx janzeni, 2005. Lambillionea 105: 584.


Synonymous species: none


Type specimen locality: Bolivia


Distribution: reported from the North of Brazil, Peru and Bolivia.


Nyceryx coffaeae (Walker, 1856)                                                               Common name: none


Original description: Perigonia coffaeae Walker, 1856. List Specimens Lepid. Insects Colln Br. Mus. 8: 101.


Synonymous species: Macroglossa abboti (Schaufuss, 1870); Pachygonia boisduvalii (Butler, 1876)


Type specimen locality: Brazil


Distribution: Nyceryx coffaeae occurs widely across the Neotropical region. It has been found in all regions of Brazil except the South.


Nyceryx furtadoi Haxaire, 1996                                                                 Common name: none


Original description: Nyceryx furtadoi Haxaire, 1996. Lambillionea. 96: 351.


Synonymous species:  none


Type specimen locality: Brazil, Matto Grosso


Distribution: found in West-central and South-eastern Brazil and Parguay.


Nyceryx mielkei Haxaire, 2009                                                                   Common name: none


Original description: Nyceryx mielkei, 2009. The European Entomologist, Vol. 2, No. 1-2.


Synonymous species: none


Type specimen locality: Maranhao. Brazil


Distribution: an endemic  to Brazil and only found in Maranhao State (the North region).


Nyceryx ericea (Druce, 1888)                                                                      Common name: none


Original description: Pachygonia ericea Druce, 1888. Ann. Mag. N.H. (6) ii p235.


Synonymous species: Nyceryx ericea minor Clark, 1916.


Type specimen locality: Panama


Distribution: reported from Panama, Guatemala, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia  and a very few specimens from Brazil. The specimen originally identified as N.e.minor was collected in Santa Catarina in 1916 but was later re-classified as just a small and pale example of the nominate species. Jean Haxaire has one specimen collected in Sao Paulo plus one other from elsewhere (site unknown).


Baniwa yavitensis Lichy, 1981                                                                    Common name: none


Original description: Baniwa yavitensis, Lichy 1981. Boln. Ent. Venezolana (NS) 1 (5): 57-70.


Synonymous species: none


Type specimen locality: Venezuela


Distribution: reported only from Venezuela and the north of Brazil.


Unzela japix (Cramer, 1776)                                                                       Common name: none


Original description: Sphinx japix Cramer, [1776]. Uitl. Kapellen 1 (8): 137, pl. 87, f.C.


Synonymous species: none


Type specimen locality: New York


Distribution: the nominate race Unzela japix japix (Cramer, 1776) occurs from Mexico to Amazonia and is replaced by the subspecies U. japix discrepans  Walker, 1856 in southern Brazil and Argentina. Records from the North and North-east regions of Brazil should be U.japix japix and those from the South and South-east regions should be U.japix discrepans (there are no records from West-central region), however many of the specimens in collections do not show the typical distinguishing features and further work is needed on this species. Furthermore, an Unzela  specimen photographed at REGUA in March 2011 is quite different to any others collected and may even represent a new species (see photo gallery).


Unzela pronoe Druce, 1894                                                                         Common name: none

   

Original description: Unzela variegata Druce, 1894. Annals and Magazine of Nat. Hist. 13: 168-182.


Synonymous species: none


Type specimen locality: British Honduras


Distribution: the nominate race occurs in Central America and south through Colombia, Ecuador and Peru to Bolivia and east through Venezuela and the Guianas to the North of Brazil. The subspecies U.p.fuscatus (Rothschild & Jordan, 1903) is restricted to the South and South-east of Brazil.


Eupyrrhoglossum sagra (Poey, 1832)                                                      Common name: Cuban Sphinx


Original description: Macroglossa sagra Poey, 1832. Centurie Lepid. Ile Cuba (1): Num. [19].


Synonymous species: Macroglossa harpyia (Schaufuss, 1870); Macroglossa sagra (Walker, 1856)


Type specimen locality: Cuba


Distribution: E. sagra can be found across the Neotropical region including the Caribbean Islands, Cuba and has recently been found breeding in southern Florida (Tuttle, 2007). Is has been reported from all 5 regions of Brazil.


Eupyrrhoglossum venustum Rothschild & Jordan, 1910                   Common name: none


Original description: Eupyrrhoglossum venustrum Rothschild & Jordan, 1910. Novit. Zool. 17: 453


Synonymous species: none


Type specimen locality: Amazonas


Distribution: reported  from Venezuela, Peru and the Northern region of Brazil.