Hawkmoths of  Brazil  by Alan Martin

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IDENTIFICATION KEY: SMALL NOCTURNAL DILOPHONOTINI


See also the Photo Gallery or Pinned Specimens or General Information

1a.  Female Enyo


E. cavifer: both cavifer and gorgon have non-scalloped outer margins to the forewings but are separated by the shape of the apex which is truncate (flat) in cavifer and sinuate (bent in) in gorgon.


Wing (male and female): 26-33 mm




E. gorgon: see cavifer above.


Wing (male and female): 28-35 mm




E. taedium: very similar to gorgon female but note the larger moon-shaped pale area  on the outer margin of the forewing. However the specimen illustrated is of the nominate race and not australis. There have been no female records of australis from Brazil.


Wing (male and female): 26-30 mm


E. lugubris lugubris: both lugubris and ocypete have scalloped outer margins to the forewings. They can be separated by the extent and shape of the dark markings around the forewing discal spot and the shape of the moon shaped pale area on the outer margin of the forewing. Lugubris also lacks the broad brown band around the upper abdomen.


Wing (male and female): 23-34 mm


E. ocypete: see lugubris above.


Wing (male and female): 22-30 mm

1b.  Male Enyo


E. cavifer: both cavifer and gorgon have non-scalloped outer margins to the forewings but are easily separated by the forewing markings.  






E. gorgon: easily separated by the forewing markings.









E. taedium australis: similar to cavifer male but with a smaller moon-shaped pale area on the outer margin of the forewing. Only a single specimen recorded from Petropolis.






E. lugubris lugubris: both lugubris and ocypete have scalloped outer margins to the forewings. Lugubris lacks the white basal area of the hindwing that ocypete has.






E. ocypete: the white basal area of the hindwing is distinctive.



2.  Aleuron


A. chloroptera: grey/brown forewings with a series of wavy lines, and green hindwings which have a broad black or dark brown submarginal band.


Wing: 28-37 mm




A. prominens: similar to chloroptera but separated by the shape and extent of the dark brown submarginal band on the hindwing.


Wing: 28-36 mm





A.carinata: distinguished from all other Aleuron species found in Brazil by the black belts around the abdomen.


Wing: 29-38 mm




A. iphis: a silver bordered antemedial line across the forewing and brown postdiscal patches on the underside of the forewing.


Wing: 22-29 mm




A. neglectum: similar to iphis but the antemedial line is less well defined and the postdiscal patches on the underside of the forewing are black not brown.


Wing: 22-29 mm




A. ypanemae: the only Aleuron species occuring in the region with a white triangular subapical spot.


Wing: 23-27

3.  Perigonia

P. lusca lusca: very variable but note the black submarginal line that curves from the apex to the tornus and the conspicuous dark antemedian band that narrows towards the costa. Note also the shape and extent of the brown submarginal area of the hindwing. Fresh specimens can have a greenish tinge.


Wing: 21-32 mm


P. passerina: very similar to lusca from which it has recently been split (again). Generally greyer than lusca and the yellow patch along the inner margin of the hindwing is larger than in lusca.


Wing: 21-26 mm




P. Ilus: once a subspecies of lusca and only separable by the yellow tornal area of the hindwing underside which is buff in lusca.


Wing: 23-28 mm



P. pallida: narrower and generally more uniform rich brown forewings. Note also the narrow and relatively straight brown submarginal area of the hindwing.


Wing: 20-31 mm




P. stulta: darker than the other Perigonia species but with a very dark band across the submarginal area and a paler band between that and the apex. Note also the shape of the brown submarginal area of the hindwing.


Wing: 23-28 mm



P. pittieri: most similar to stulta but the outer margin of the forewing is more gently curved, the forewing is more uniformly coloured and the antemedian band is straight or slightly curved.


Wing: 25 (1 specimen)




P. leucopus: note the conspicuous lunate patch on the outer margin of the forewing. The brown marginal band on the hindwing narrows towards the apex.


Wing: 21-24 mm

4.  Nyceryx

N. nictitans nictitans: identified by the extent and  shape of the dark markings on the submarginal area of the forewing, and the orange on the hindwing.


Wing: 21-28 mm




N. riscus: identified by the extent and  shape of the dark markings on the submarginal area of the forewing, and the yellow on the hindwing. The forewing apex is sinuate and not truncate as in stuarti.


Wing: 25-33 mm




N. stuarti: darker than riscus  with the forewing apex truncate.


Wing: 27-31 mm





N. janzeni: most similar to stuarti but smaller and forewings paler brown. The inner edge of the submarginal zone is almost straight.


Wing: 26 (1 specimen)




N. coffaea: the only Nyceryx species that has a dark band dividing the yellow area of the hindwing. Note also the dark band across the forewing discal area that starts broadly on the inner margin and narrows towards the costa.


Wing: 25-34 mm




N. furtadoi: note the large black discal spot, the series of wavy lines across the forewing and the pale yellow hindwing.


Wing:  27-30 mm





N. mielkei: a small Nyceryx like brevis but with the forewing pattern more similar to furtadoi. Only recorded from Maranhao state in North-east Brazil.


Wing: 20-22 mm





N. ericea: distinguished from all other Nyceryx species by the semi-transparent spots in the distal half of the forewing and tornal area of the hindwing.


Wing:

N. alophus alophus: similar to continua, but alophus has a clear dark subbasal streak whereas the streak in continua tends to be joined with other dark markings on the inner margin of the forewing discal area. The outer edge of the forewing, especially in the basal area, tends to be more variegated in alophus and more uniform in continua. Note also the shape of the apex and the outer margins of the forewings of continua are a little less scalloped than in alophus.


Wing: 23-30 mm


N. continua continua: see alophus above.


Wing: 27-32 mm





N. brevis: similar to continua but 2/3rd of the size. Recently split and very rare. It has only been found at higher elevations with scattered low savanna trees and bushes. No females have been collected.


Wing: male 20-22 mm





N. magna:  identified by its dark forewings  and narrow orange basal area of thehindwing.


Wing: 24-33 mm









6.  Unzela

7.  Eupyrrhoglossum

U. japix: the smallest common hawkmoth found in Brazil, easily identified by the irregular shaped forewing markings.  The nominate race U.j.japix occurs in northern Brazil and is replaced by the subspecies U.j.discrepans in southern Brazil. In theory the two races can be separated by the shape and width of the median band, but there are many intermediate specimens. In discrepans the median band is narrower on the inner margin and more sharply angled in the centre.


Wing: 19-24 mm







U. pronoe: superficially similar to japix but paler with a broad median band and note the black discal spot. The nominate race U.p.pronoe occurs in northern Brazil and is replaced in southern Brazil by the subspecies U.p.fuscatus which can be separated by the smaller and less defined costal part of the median band, and the more clay-coloured underside of the body.


Wing: 23-25 mm



E. sagra: separated from venustrum by the narrow diagonal yellow band across the hindwing, the white subbasal line and the distinctive submarginal white spot on the forewing.


Wing: 20-29 mm




E. venustum: see above.


Wing: 28-30 mm

5.  Baniwa

B. yavitensis: unmistakable forewing pattern. Found only in northern Brazil.


Wing:

U.japix japix

U.japix discrepans

U.pronoe pronoe

U.pronoe fuscatus