Hawkmoths of  Brazil  by Alan Martin

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Miscellaneous Sphingini

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Cocytius antaeus (Drury, 1773)                                                                Common name: Giant Sphinx


Original description: Sphinx antaeus Drury, 1773. Illust. Nat. Hist. Exot. Insects. 2: index [91].


Synonymous species: Amphonyx tapayusa (Moore, 1883); Cocytius henrici Pinchon, 1969; Sphinx annonae (Shaw, 1802); Sphinx hydaspus (Cramer, 1777); Sphinx iatrophae (Fabricius, 1775); Sphinx medor (Stoll, 1782)


Type specimen locality: Jamaica


Distribution: this species occurs throughout the Neotropical region and even breeds in southern Florida with adults occasionally straying into northern Florida, southern Texas and even Arizona and Mississippi. It has been recorded in all 5 Brazilian regions.


Cocytius duponchel (Poey, 1832)                                                              Common name: Duponchel’s Sphinx


Original description: Amphonyx  duponchel Poey, 1832. Centurie Lepid. Ile Cuba. (1): Num. [5]


Synonymous species: Cocytius affinis Rothschild, 1894; Amphonyx godartii (Boisduval, [1875]); Amphonyx rivularis (Butler, 1875).


Type specimen locality: Cuba


Distribution: the classification of Cocytius duponchel is under review and may change to Amphonyx. C. duponchel is a Neotropical species that ranges throughout much of central and northern South America, Central America and the Antilles. It has been recorded in all 5 Brazilian regions.


Cocytius mortuorum Rothschild & Jordan, 1910                                  Common name: none


Original description: Cocytius mortuorum Rothschild & Jordan, 1910. Novitates Zoologicae 17 : 448-449.


Synonymous species: none


Type specimen locality: Allianca, Brazil


Distribution: the classification of Cocytius is under review and may change to Morcocytius. It has only been recorded from the Northern region of Brazil.


Cocytius beelzebuth (Boisduval, [1875])                                                 Common name: none


Original description: Amphonyx beelzebuth Boisduval, [1875]. Hist. Nat. Insectes (Spec. Gen. Lepid. Heteroceres). 1: 63.


Synonymous species: none


Type specimen locality: Brazil


Distribution: the classification of Cocytius beelzebuth is under review and may change to Pseudococytius. It is found only in the Neotropical region from Brazil and Bolivia northwards to Costa Rica, and has been recorded from the North, South and South-east Brazil.


Cocytius lucifer Rothschild & Jordan, 1903                                             Common name: none


Original description: Cocytius lucifer Rothschild & Jordan, 1903. Novit. Zool. 9 (suppl.): 53 (key), 59.


Synonymous species: Cocytius lucifer lindneri Gehlen, 1944; Cocytius macasensis Clark, 1922


Type specimen locality: Mexico


Distribution: This species occurs across most of central and northern South America and Central America and has been recorded in the North, North-east, South-east and Southern regions of Brazil.


Cocytius mephisto Haxaire & Vaglia, 2002                                              Common name: none


Original description: Cocytius mephisto, Haxaire & Vaglia, 2002. Lambillionea 102: 481.


Synonymous species: none


Type specimen locality: Brazil, Santa Catarina


Distribution: recently split from C.lucifer from a specimen collected in Santa Catarina state in southern Brazil. There had been 3 further records from Parana (2) and Sao Paulo and then on a visit to the Rio National Museum in late 2011, Haxaire identified a single male specimen of Cocytius mephisto that had been collected at Itatiaia in 1962 but which had been overlooked.  It is an endemic to Brazil and has only been recorded in the South and South-east regions. The classification of Cocytius mephisto is under review and may change to Amphonyx.


Lintneria justiciae Walker, 1856                                                                Common name: none


Original description: Sphinx justiciae Walker, 1856. List Specimens Lepid. Insects Colln. Br. Mus. 8: 220.


Synonymous species: Sphinx anteros Menetries, 1857  


Type specimen locality: Rio de Janeiro, Brazil


Distribution: until recently justiciae has been classified under the genus Sphinx, but Kawahara et al (2009) has recommended that it be re-classified under Lintneria leaving the Sphinx genus to be used only for old world (Palearctic) species. Lintneria justiciae has only been recorded from South and South-east Brazil, Uruguay and northern Argentina.  


Amphimoea walkeri (Boisduval, [1875])                                                 Common name: Darwin Hawkmoth


Original description: Amphonyx walkeri Boisduval, [1875]. Hist. Nat. Insectes (Spec. Gen. Lepid. Heteroceres). 1: 67.


Synonymous species: Amphonyx staudingeri, (Druce, 1888); Cocytius magnificus (Rothschild, 1894); Cocytius misionum, (Kohler, 1924)


Type specimen locality: [French] Guyana, [River] Oiapoque  


Distribution: A. walkeri occurs widely across Central and South America. It has been reported from North, North-east and South-east Brazil.


Neococytius cluentius (Cramer, 1775)                                                     Common name: none


Original description: Sphinx cluentius Cramer, 1775. Uitlandsche Kapellen (Papillons exot.). 1: 124, pl. 78, fig. B.


Synonymous species: none


Type specimen locality: [Neotropical Region], West Indies  


Distribution: N. cluentius is a Neotropical species that occurs throughout most of South America, Central America, Mexico, West Indies, Cuba and has occasionally strayed into the USA as far north as Michigan and Illinois. It has been recorded in all 5 regions of Brazil.  


Neogene curitiba Jones, 1908                                                                    Common name: none


Original description: Neogene curitiba Jones 1908. Trans. ent. Soc. Lond.. 1908: 167.


Synonymous species: none.  


Type specimen locality: Brazil, Curitiba


Distribution: recorded only from North, West-central, South-east and Southern Brazil.


Neogene dynaeus (Hubner, [1827]-[1831])                                            Common name: none


Original description: Hyloicos dynaeus Hubner, [1831]. Zutr. Samml. Exot. Schmett. 3: 19, pl. [80], figs 463, 464.


Synonymous species: none.  


Type specimen locality: Bahia, Brazil


Distribution: Neogene dynaeus occurs in North, North-east, West-central and South-east Brazil but is replaced by the larger N. reevei (Druce, 1882) in the far south of Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay.


Neogene reevei (Druce, 1882)                                                                    Common name: none


Original description: Hyloicus reevei Druce, 1882. Entomologist's mon. Mag. 19: 18.


Synonymous species: Sphinx baruta (Berg, 1883); Sphinx cossoides (Rothschild, 1894); Neogene reevei minor Clark, 1938.


Type specimen locality: Paraguay


Distribution: found in the far south of Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay.


Neogene corumbensis Clark, 1922                                                             Common name: none


Original description: Chlaenogramma corumbensis Clark, 1922. Proc. New England Zool. Club 7: 68.


Synonymous species: none


Type specimen locality: Corumba, Matto Grosso, Brazil


Distribution: found only in West-central Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay.


Agrius cingulata (Fabricius, 1775)                                                            Common name: Pink-spotted Hawkmoth


Original description: Sphinx cingulata Fabricius, 1775. Systema Entomologiae 545.


Synonymous species: Sphinx affinis (Goeze, 1780); Sphinx druraei (Donovan, 1810); Sphinx pungens (Eschscholtz, 1821)


Type specimen locality: America


Distribution: A. cingulata is primarily Neotropical in its distribution but also breeds in the southern states of the USA and strays have been recorded as far north as eastern Canada and even in Western Europe. It has been recorded in all 5 regions of Brazil.